Thursday, August 26, 2010

Yes, Buying Used Games Doesn't Make You a Bad Person.

The Big Gaming Argument of the Week is about whether is it's moral to buy used video games. It's legal. Nobody can deny that. But is it, you know, OK? Penny Arcade had a big spiel on it today. Normally I really respect their point of view on these issues, but their anti-rentals-and-used-games screed is way off base.

So here is the question. Creators depend on game disc sales to make a living. Bearing that in mind, is it ethical to buy and sell used games? And, along those lines, is it ethical to buy a used CD? Or buy from a used bookstore? Or check out a book from the library? In all of these cases, you are enjoying the works of creators without putting money in their pockets. So are libraries OK?

That I went straight to the library thing kind of telegraphs where I am going with this. Because, hey, let's look at books for a second. I love books. I really want authors to make a good living doing what they do. And, by the way, I had my
first book published not too long ago, so I actually have a stake in this. Buying new books (and thus putting money in the pockets of authors) is a Good Thing.

And yet, I often buy used books, AND I get books out of the library. And yet, at night, I sleep like a baby. And when someperson buys a used copy of one of my book, I'm cool with that. I'm not going to chase him or her down the street waving a stick or anything.

My games and book are sold used, so I have a personal stake in this, but I'm still for used sales. Because there are other, equally important principles in play here.

Information Is Not Free, But It Should Travel Freely

How can I reconcile these two seemingly contradictory viewpoints? It's not hard. See, there is a principle involved in wanting money to go to authors. But there are also principles involved in being able to give away and sell them.

, it is a long-established principle of law that books (like CDs and game disks) are objects. When you buy an object, you can then give it away or sell it or whatever. It's yours. This is a right you have, and you don't have to apologize for using it. (This right can be waived by explicitly agreeing to an EULA that prevents resale, but this doesn't apply to console games. If you're interested in the legal fiddly bits here, you should read about the First-Sale Doctrine.)

Second, books are works of art and media for transmitting ideas. Art and ideas are good things, and we as a society want them to move around freely. This helps us to have, you know, a culture. Not to mention the free flow of competing ideas that is necessary for a healthy republic. And, if you take video games seriously as works of art and human expression, as I know the Penny Arcade guys do, you should want a similar freedom to apply to them.

(By the way, when I wrote not long ago about
times when piracy is OK, many people told me that they pirated games when they were young because they had no money. In the world of books, this simple fact is understood. That is why libraries exist. As much as the publishing industry might not want them too.)

I often buy books new. I see it as part of my duty to support that industry. Someone has to do it, or there will be far fewer new books. But, at the same time, libraries and used bookstores are Good Things. I bet if you went to Gabe and Tycho and told them it was immoral to go to a library, they would think you were an idiot and throw poo on you. But here they are taking this exact point of view for video games. Which are also works of art and media for distributing ideas. Honestly not sure what they are thinking here.

Oh, and one quote from Tycho:

"I traded in games for a long time, there's probably comics somewhere in the archive about it - you can imagine how quickly my cohort and I consume these things. It was sort of like Free Money, and we should have understood from the outset that no such thing exists. You meet one person who creates games for a living, just one, and it becomes very difficult to maintain this virtuous fiction."

Um, no. It's not difficult at all. I will look anyone in the eye and tell them that the trade in used games is both legal and ethical. And then they, if they want, can look me in the eye and tell me that buying used copies of my book and used CDs of my games is OK too. Living in a country where people have rights and ideas freely circulate is a good thing.

There are more principles at stake here than just how many dollars goes to this or that guy.

On the Other Hand

Publishers have recently experimented in programs to give extra features to those who buy games new. This is totally cool and legal and, in come cases, a practical necessity.

For example, some games now come with a key that you need to enter to play in online multiplayer. Buy the game used and you have to pay a small fee to get multiplayer.

This is fair. Why? Because the publisher is paying the ongoing costs to maintain the servers. If I give my old copy of The Stand to a friend, it doesn't directly harm the publisher. The publisher doesn't know that I exist. But if I give a copy of Halo 3 to a friend and he goes online, his presence on the servers costs a (small) amount of money. In return for providing the online service, the publisher is allowed to ask for money. If you don't like that, you don't need to buy that game used.

Publishers can legally and ethically hobble used games. They're certainly heading in that direction. They can do it, but it's not wise. People get really smart when it comes to their money. When someone buys a car or house, they pay attention to resale value. It goes the same for video games. If resale is no longer an option, the $60 for that disk suddenly becomes a lot more expensive. If publishers think that crippling used sales is going to suddenly make angels drop piles of cash on their heads, I think they are due for a crushing disappointment.

But if I've learned anything in the last few years, it is to never underestimate the death-wish of either the music industry or gaming companies.


  1. "But if I give a copy of Halo 3 to a friend and he goes online, his presence on the servers costs a (small) amount of money."

    Which is directly offset by the savings of no longer having to host your presence on the server, so no, it isn't fair. And a company that treats its customers like this isn't one I care to do business with.

    Note, I'd have zero problems with a company that said, "we guarantee that we're hosting the online multiplayer servers through 20xx, and we optionally retire them or require a fee afterwards". That would be fair, and up front, and better than what they do now in many cases.

  2. An excellent article. I also don't know why the PA guys are pushing the fiction that purchasing used games is somehow identical to starving developers out of house and home; it's an odd illusion to have to maintain, and it must be nice to have income that can support nothing but first-hand, release-time purchases.

    I don't have an issue with Johnny Public flogging off his no-longer-required games to someone else, and it's a hell of a lot better than the someone else pirating the software. I also don't have an issue with publishers offering retail purchasers incentives and/or restricting usage of second-hand users. Where I do have issues is when either side insists the other is mistreating them, or, more commonly, the publishers behaving as if customers are a pox upon their business.

  3. I buy used games, used books, used CDs and am an avid library card user. I do buy new items as well, but I think the most important thing here is that I *buy* these items. I'm not ripping other people's CDs, I'm not pirating other people's games, and I'm not downloading e-books that people illegally uploaded online. If I enjoy an author or game publisher enough (Bethesda and CDProjektRED come to mind) then I will begin to buy their items new. There are a vast number of authors I read, and buy new, that would be unknown to me if it were not for used book stores. Used book/game/music stores make it possible for me to legally consume a larger amount of media for less money out of pocket. As a result, I am introduced to a larger variety of media than would have been possible if I was required to buy everything new.

  4. Skip beat me to it. I was about to attack the same point. The developers/publishers are not magically deprived of sales during a second-hand transaction. In the process of me selling a used game to someone else, I am depriving myself access to that game in exchange for the money, while the recipient is gaining access. Restricting multiplayer to firsthand buyers is ridiculous. What's the difference between player A loving the game and playing online continually for 3 years while players B, C, and D cover portions of those 3 years with some other copy (sold used to one another)?

  5. How does anyone see trading used copies working in the digital download era?

  6. @Harbour Master: It doesn't. You pay less money and you don't get to give it away. It's not an inherently evil model. I buy games digitally all the time. But I still have a preference for buying a physical object.

    - Jeff Vogel

  7. @Jeff: I haven't bought a physical copy of a game for a long time, but I was wondering if all these arguments over used copies of games might become a moot point in the very near future. But I will still have my fine collection of Atari 2600 cartridges.

  8. This isn't a case of buying a game several years old for a very cheap price. Usually the used games at Gamestop are only a few bucks cheaper than their shiny new counterparts.

    But, hey, it *is* cheaper, so a typical customer will go for the used version instead of the new. Had the used version not been there in the first place, the customer would most likely have bought the new version.

    This isn't a case of "not being able to afford it." It's a case of "Hey, this is a bit cheaper so I'll buy this one instead." Gamestop knows this, so they push the used copies as hard as they can.

    Totally legal, yes. But ethical? That's the gray area. If these used games were actually sold at a "cheap" price, then maybe this wouldn't be an issue.

  9. One thing that doesn't seem to have been brought up is an argument that I encountered the other day with respect to college textbooks, and it applies just as well to both situations: the used market helps publishers more than it hurts them.

    To wit: If consumer A is faced with a choice between buying a game/book and doing without, that consumer is quantifiably more likely to buy it if they know they can get some of their money back later by reselling it to consumer B. Once they do, consumer A can then spend the money they otherwise wouldn't have on more games/books. Most of the money that the publisher loses when consumer B (who probably doesn't particularly have the money to buy new anyway) buys used is theoretically regained when consumer A spends it on a different game/book.

  10. (And yes, I know the real situation with both books and games is usually "consumer A usually resells to a store, which in turn sells to consumer B", and that the store charges B tremendously more than they paid A and pockets the difference. I was skipping a step in a quixotic quest for clarity.)

  11. I suspect that a popular book or game (a good one) has a flourishing second hand market, and that market drives the people with money to buy the thing in new unused condition, because we all now that makes you a superior human.

  12. I'm also growing tired of this notion that "games never decrease in quality" as opposed to other physical good that suffer wear and tear. According to that logic, books never degrade either; the words inside are the same they were years prior. Therefore, the author deserves a cut of every sale! /sarcasm

    This nonsense needs to end. Selling used games is a perfectly legal practice. It's not even remotely immoral. Gamestop's financial success is a strong indicator that NEW GAME PRICES ARE TOO HIGH.

  13. I just want to say that this is an excellent article, and thank you for writing it.

    @Wadjet Eye: I doubt that 'new used' games account for a majority of used game sales. Based on my own experience as a used game purchaser, games older than six months account for at least 95% of all used game stock, even in Gamestop (which I don't frequent).

    I simply don't buy the argument that secondhand games hurt the industry. In addition to the ever-climbing sales numbers of big releases, there's also this ESA report. According to the linked PDF:

    "The real annual growth rate of the U.S. computer and video game software industry was 10.6% for the period 2005-2009 and 16.7% for the period 2005-2008.

    During the same period, real growth for the U.S. economy as a whole was 1.4% for 2005-09 and 2.8% for 2005-08."

    I'm no economist, but to me that seems to indicate a very healthy industry. I'm certain everyone else would like to be doing 7.5 times as well as the rest of the country.

  14. I haven't bought a used game since the SNES days, but wow. The arguments being made by game publishers are reprehensibly dishonest. The saddest part is how many otherwise-intelligent people they've managed to convince. It's classic Overton Window pushing: making such extreme statements that a slightly less odious move will be seen as a reasonable compromise.

    The only situation where the argument is even conceivably rational is something like a short, artsy indie game that really isn't replayable. Then used sales could maybe pose a serious threat.

    But we're explicitly talking about big AAA games with *extensive multiplayer components*. There's every reason *not* to sell such a game unless it's really terrible. There's no reason for there to be a large second-hand market until long after release.

  15. Excellent Post, Jeff.

    When I read the PA article, I thought "what the hell are these guys thinking? They're usually much better than this!"

    My analogy was cars. There is a (somewhat, due to the econonmy) thriving used car industry in the US. Buying a used car doesn't help the manufacturers. Sure, they can sell parts and dealers do maintenance, but there are plenty of independent mechanics and you can get parts from a junkyard. You may say that the seller needs to replace his or her car, but the game seller needs to replace his or her game, too.

  16. Nice article,

    One point you did not directly point out, but is mentioned a little, I find particularly interesting.

    While some people could say every used game bought is a lost sale, maybe the number of games sold in the first place would of been smaller if no one could of played the game and then sold it used.

    but then buying used is exactly the same as pirating to the publisher. You play the game and they get 0 direct money from it.
    So no wonder they complain.

  17. "Publishers have recently experimented in programs to give extra features to those who buy games new. This is totally cool and legal and, in come cases, a practical necessity."

    I actually think DLC are, on the whole, a brilliant idea. Especially for console games, where a lot of peoiple - myself included - don't BUY very often, but do RENT a lot.

    As long as the DLC are small bites of the game, and have reasonably-modest pricetags, I even _welcome_ them. And yes, I've bought them ... for games I didn't own, but was renting.

    Case in point, #1: Dead Space. I must have dropped $5 to $10 on various DLC for that game. Didn't own it, never intended to buy it. Don't regret the extra $$ I spent - partly because I got my money's worth, partly because I know that "despite" my being a renter, I still put osme money in the creators' pockets.

    Case in point #2: Borderlands. While I _do_ intend to own a copy eventually, I don't currently. Yet, when I had my rental copy, I bought all but the last DLC (it came out a week after I returned the game), the one abut General Knox.

    On the other hand ... if the price is too high, you can rely on my not to buy it. 20% to 25% of the cost of the game itself, is definitely "too high". 10% is about my cap.

    Case in point #3: Mass Effect 2. Since I don't know how much I get with Cerberus Network access, _and_ since the price (when I had a rental copy, during the first month after release) was between $12 and $15 ... no, I'm sorry but that's just way too damned expensive for me to buy it. ESPECIALLY not for a game I might eventually purchasing my own copy of, anyway. If it had been $5, I'd've paid for it, and nevermind the "waste" when I bought a copy later.

  18. The thing that surprised me most about this is that Gabe and Tycho have any need to purchase games at all. I would have assumed that the secret Penny Arcade lair was filled to the rafters with free review copies of essentially everything published. I can't imagine not sending a copy of everything their way if I were in the games marketing business. It's not like anyone asks Roger Ebert to pay $10 a ticket for a critic's screening, after all.

  19. Sometimes the only option available is to buy something used. With most industries including books, video games, and CDs a given item is only being published for a given period of a few weeks or maybe months and limited to a specific set number of items produced. There are exceptions to this rule—popular fiction novels will be churning out until the market is saturated, popular video games get another run as "Greatest Hits" or "Player's Choice" titles, same kinda deal with popular music albums.

    Lambasting used sales doesn't screw over the "popular" things; it screws over the less well known things. The cult classic genre would die. There would also be a lot of very frustrated people who bought things they didn't really like. While folks like Tycho and Gabe might be happy to have large collections of less than stellar video games laying around their homes most people would prefer to get rid of the games they don't enjoy. This isn't a bad thing: this means someone else will have a chance to play that game, and they might really enjoy it.

    We can always vote with our wallets. If no one purchases games that require a game to chat with a DRM server at all times, or games that require you to pay for content already on a game disc then publishers might get the picture.

    I'm more skeptical about DLC and DRM games in the long run. I still enjoy playing old games and will break out my old consoles to play them. What happens in ten years when someone wants to relive the nostalgia of playing a non-MMO DLC based game? Or a game that talks to a DRM server in order to run? Does it become a useless nostalgic coaster? Maybe a wind chime?

  20. I would have liked you to put more emphasis on buying with intent to resell. When people know that they can resell, they buy more freely, and more copies get sold. The second hand buyer is enabling the first, almost like a loan or group purchase.

    Libraries buy books that they know will get circulated (either now or later as a classic). If people don't go to libraries, those copies don't get bought.

  21. The entire point becomes moot once one realizes that retail companyies such as Gamestop, or EBGames, Wal-Mart, ETC. All have their personal supply sold to them by the publishers. So even if you buy the used game, the New Game is already paid for, just not by the customer. Sure, gamestop loses a couple dollars on New Games which sell eventually anyways. But they rake in profit on selling used game purchased for only a few dollars.
    In the end? Costumer recieves copy at lower price, Generic Game Store makes a profit or doesn't. And publisher/supplier to store gets the money for the new copies supplied regardless.


    add comment moderation to your BS or more people will die with you...

    plush safe he think

    but with recent revelations about James Randi, I think he likes DICKS!





    THE B**BQUAKE - 911

    you are going to pay the price for this….


    there is a lot of sh*t to flush!


    Is America burning yet?

    Maybe we need some more...

    we use the DIVINE against the ESTABLISHMENT... you?

    we do better DEMOLITIONS than you, savage...


    let them know if the MDC continues more people will die...




    Actually it is a ROYAL FLUSH!!!

    Let me show you how ATHEISTS were partially responsible for 911


    You don’t even have SCIENCE on your side…

    You’re a perfect example of when PHILOSOPHY becomes an ENEMY OF LIFE...

    not quite samantha with her *supernatural spit*, eh?

    this isn't one of your little WORD GAMES...

    blasphemy is a DEATH SENTENCE

    you people actually BELIEVE the BS you preach!

    GOD 1 - atheists 0



    Repent and turn to God or be destroyed...


    my interpretation of the STATUE FIRE... it symbolizes the SPIRITUAL DEATH of atheism...


    we do like your music Lady Gaga, but...

    The B**BQUAKE - 911

    Let me show you the FATE OF TRAITORS...

    they are incapable of telling the difference between SCIENTIFIC *FACT* AND

    they also preach a *VALUE FREE SCIENCE* called *POSITIVISM* that ignores the
    inequalities of wealth and power in capitalist civilization...

    for a sample taste of PZ Myers' GARBAGE...



    what happens when you LOSE Pascal's Wager...

    THE BOOBQUAKE - 911!

  23. really an excellent post.

    And I agree with Malimar: if you sell something used, chances are you'll buy something else from the same industry, so you'll actually help that industry as a whole (if not that exact publisher).

  24. As much as I hate feeding the great GameStop monster, your argument concerning libraries is solid. As a game designer yourself, you are in a good position to refute their position. I know I certainly don't have $60 to shell out for anything not food or bill shaped, so I can't agree that people should only buy new games. Hell, the market at the moment is so flooded with crap games that rental is a good idea financially. You can't return a new game once you've played it. The minimum wage cogs will scorn you and delight in telling you no, as it is the only time in their blighted careers that they actually have the ability to say no to anything.

  25. I don't have any problem with buying/selling used games. I also don't think there's anything remotely wrong (either ethically, legally, nor from a long-term-selfish-standpoint) of companies coming up with ways to encourage people to buy products new. You want to save money buying a used thing? Well, you'll just have to save a little less if you want the full version.

    While I think they did go overboard, the specific target of the Penny Arcade thing was not people buying used games, but rather people buying used games who then complained about not being "respected as customers." And the point, that when you buy something used, you are not a customer, is perfectly valid.

    I've never purchased a $60 game with the specific intent to resell, so the notion that I'm suddenly going to have a harder time doing so doesn't really impact me. If I spend $60 on a game, it's because I REALLY want the game.

  26. It's amazing to me that is is even going on this century. I'm 46 and have been collecting games since the 80's. I buy sell and trade new and used games and have (and will continue to do so). In all the years I've been trading, I've never seen pressure AGAINST used games coming from the industry. Now, for some nutty reason it's "Used games BAD - you spend full price NOW or you BAD too..."

    Which is just stupid.

    Demonizing the used games marketplace seems like some sort of insane ploy by the industry to either get rid of physical product and force as many people as possible into thinking download ONLY or paying for more content through micro-transactions is the "wave" of the future and the ONLY way to go.

    Still, I'm wondering whether part of this pressure is because of the lousy economy. With studios shutting down and some game companies posting loss after loss, it makes sense for the industry to pick away at the used market in the hope that consumers will start to buy their line of crap and actually spend more money on new product instead of waiting for it used (or for unsold stock to be marked down past the point where profit can be made).

    Oh, and as someone who reviews games, we don't ALL get stuff for free, folks. I'm sure Gabe and Tycho pay for some stuff (why not ask them?) or at least rent games from time to time...

  27. I've been gaming for 28 years, Commodore 64 Hooo!, and the idea that used games are hurting the industry is crazy. Maybe if New games didn't cost so much at the time of release, you'd see more people jumping on board to buy them new.

    How did we go from new games being 20~30 dollars to $60?

    I've gotten to a point where I don't even buy the A+ list games that come out new. I wait until they have dropped in price and then purchase them. Or, if its a stubborn title like Gears of War 2 (that takes about as long as the announcement for a sequel to drop in price), then I'd happily plunk down half the price for a used copy.

    I think back on the best games that I've played in the past few years and all of them (save 1 or 2) were from Indie developers. I don't believe that multi-million dollar games justify a huge price tag. We don't need Television ad campaigns and movie tie ins to promote video games and thus jack up the cost of production.

  28. The problem, in my eyes, is the pricing scheme. Either you have a $60 dollar game, which obligates you to make it high-budget with cutting edge graphics which puts you more at risk, or else it has to be sub-$20 on XBLA or PSN, in which case if you do put a middling budget into it then its hard to recoup your costs. There's no middle grouns.

    Interestingly enough the Nintendo platforms have the healthiest model this gen: stuff can range anywhere from 20-50 dollars on Wii and DS

    (And of course Steam, but PC gaming is a whole different beast)

  29. The rounded shape of speedy 30 features textile fake louis vuitton lining and leather trimmings with shiny Louis Vuitton Monogram ldylle Romance Encre golden brass. Sized at 11.8" x 8.3" x 6.7", the large capacity Hermes Original Python Birkin 30 Grey of this bag is enough for handbags review daily essentials; you can put bags wholesale everything into this city bag. It also fits for Hermes Clemence Jypsiere 34 Purple every occasion and perfectly goes with any outfits mfakng100910.

  30. "If publishers think that crippling used sales is going to suddenly make angels drop piles of cash on their heads, I think they are due for a crushing disappointment." Fantastic.

  31. Silver pandora jewelry store comprises replacement atomic number 79 equally the metal by choice in that pandora jewelry website flavors manners. .925 alright superlative Ag Jewelry checks 92.5% complete silver pandora jewelry online and comprises assorted with extra debases to beef up them and abbreviate maculating pandora style jewelry coming through a hard-nosed alloy as pandora bracelet beads . The rise in metal prices, especially gold, have begun to alter pandora leather bracelet dashes. Designers are applying sterling pandora style bracelet a lot of today because of its gold pandora bracelet appeal and affordability. Designers care Jacques Louis pandora charm necklace David Yurman and those from pandora’s cause changed their focus and are making A-list assembles by .925 Fine Sterling pandora necklace charms Although Silver is affordable its price has quietly risen 300% inch the last 5 years and is astir across 50% pandora silver beads these class entirely. Many investment advisers* recommend a portion of your wealth be inward Ag and amber. Trend setters who comprised the first to begin wearing pandora necklace leather metal to match tatto last word and additional electric current styles as well do good along accepting pandora bracelet charms worth more than they paid for it.

  32. in his last winter boots,one season - these achievements make Ecco Casual Shoeshim one of the NBA's

  33. I just have this energy level that I've never had before. The only thing that's changed is I've started wearing my Power Balance bracelet and nike running shoes
    Power Balance wholesale
    Silly Bands
    Reebok Easytone

  34. Bid on Power Bracelet now! Find Bracelets. New Colors & Sizes. power balance wholesale Guarantee & Secure

    Ordering.Power balance USA, Canada, UK Free Shipping. Rosetta Stone allows headstones to provide genealogical and

    historical information about the deceased directly to cemetery site visitors.

  35. As the shape ups time draws nigh when the whole business must be achieved, the clock must be consulted, and to each dish due tune allowed for the fire to complete what has been thus prepared. Now the cook must be collected as well as busy, that there may be no oversight of any kind (see art. ■' Cooking"). The vegetables and sauces must, in their preparation, keep pace with the dishes which they are to accompany, so that the order of the dinner may be carefully observed.1561. The dinner hour arrived, the cook commences serving such things as may, without injury, bo covered over, and plare.l for a short time on the hot hearth, or in the hot closet (see " Kitchen Apparatus"). Dut choice or important skechers shape ups dishes she refrains from serving until the order for dinner has been given from the drawing-room. Then all hands are at work. shape ups skechers The cook takes immediate charge of fish, soup, and poultry. The kitchen-maid (in some houses assisted by the under housemaid) dishes vegetables, and pours gravies and «auces iuto tureens. The scullion waits the bidding of the cook. All are thus busy, and yet without con fusion.1502. skechers shoes The serving table (in some kitchens heated with steam) is covered with a clian ninth, and the first coarse is set upon it, and carried thence by the footmen, in regular order, to the butler in the dining-room. The cook's constant aim should be shape ups shoes to serve her dinner neatly, and* above even-thing, to scud it up hot. it '-old. her painstaking in all other respects will avail little. Also, of the second course she Bhould time judi "iotisly the dishing; if deferred too long, an awkward shape ups boots lapse in the dining-room will occur; if loo soon, some tt the light and fancy dishes, such as omelettes aud fundus, may be injured. •1563.

  36. Tiffany is about the world's most renowned designers of first-rate offerings.Dissimilar to other vogue companies,tiffany necklaces deal firmly in products for instance jewelry,designer watches,glass wares,lamps,bags,plus more.
    tiffany jewellery
    tiffany silvers
    tiffany uk
    tiffany jewellery uk
    tiffany jewellery sale
    tiffany rings
    tiffany co rings
    tiffany engagement rings
    tiffany bracelets
    tiffany co bracelets
    tiffany necklaces
    tiffany charms
    replica tiffany jewellery
    replica tiffany
    tiffany co
    tiffany and co

  37. A tree’s leaves may be ever so good.So may its bark, so may its wood;
    But unless you put the right thing to its root.It never will hidh81ke show much flower or fruit.
    Wholesale New Era Hats
    Cheap 59fifty Hats
    Cheap New Era Hats
    New Era Snapback Hats
    New Era Fitted Hats

  38. Hi you are doing a great job. I was looking for this information. I found it on your page its really amazing.
    Second Hand Vans

  39. Good! I'm glad that I read this. I was going to buy used video games for my brother for Christmas. Now I don't feel so bad...or cheap!

  40. Want to offer for you a user-friendly platform to businesses and individuals to Post Free Ads.
    Post Free Ads or get free account via Facebook Login in one click.
    Get more with free advertising at

  41. I am glad that I am not a bad person. I don't think I have ever bought a game that hasn't been used. I just think that there were a lot of great games and I can get them now for very low prices.

    William |

  42. I just got a cheque for $500.

    Many times people don't believe me when I tell them about how much money you can earn taking paid surveys online...

    So I show them a video of myself actually getting paid over $500 for doing paid surveys.

  43. Quantum Binary Signals

    Get professional trading signals sent to your mobile phone daily.

    Start following our trades today & profit up to 270% per day.

  44. Your blog provided us with valuable information to work with. Each & every tips of your post are awesome. Thanks a lot for sharing. Keep blogging..
    This is a brilliant blog! I'm very happy with your job!..

  45. BlueHost is ultimately the best web-hosting company for any hosting services you need.

  46. While some may say that all games purchased are purchased as lost sales, the number of games sold in the first place will be less if no one can play the game and sell it.


  47. Making money online, online jobs allow you to work from the comfort of your own home. However, many folks fear that the cost of online business is prohibitive. You can earn money online without spending a lot of money to start. Switch on your computer and visit website get to work.

  48. Free slots and free slots online games selected by professional! Find the best payout casino, free bonus online casino and best real money slots games!

  49. There are certainly a lot of details like that to take into consideration. That is a great point to bring up. I offer the thoughts above as general inspiration but clearly there are questions like the one you bring up where the most important thing will be working in honest good faith. I don?t know if best practices have emerged around things like that, but I am sure that your job is clearly identified as a fair game. Both boys and girls feel the impact of just a moment’s pleasure, for the rest of their lives.

    Click Here

  50. I am happy with your article, Fajartoto think your website is pretty good. Many articles are very useful for everyone. I am sure your website will grow in the future. Fajartoto will always support your website, hopefully more advanced. keep the spirit... thanks

    togel online
    bandar togel terpercaya
    bandar togel sgp
    situs togel resmi
    togel online terpercaya
    agen togel
    agen togel terpercaya
    prediksi sgp
    syair togel hk

  51. You should take part in a contest for one of the best blogs on the web. I will recommend this site!

    Click Here

  52. Sell used video games online at Eagle Saver and get the best selling price. We pay the most for your used video games.

  53. Most people have a fairly robust collection of movies in their homes used and new movies

  54. I know your aptitude on this. I should say we ought to have an online discourse on this. Composing just remarks will close the talk straight away! What's more, will confine the advantages from this data.  casino

  55. You have a great blog here! would you like to make some invite posts on my blog?

  56. Excellent Blog! I would like to thank for the efforts you have made in writing this post. I am hoping the same best work from you in the future as well. I wanted to thank you for this websites! Thanks for sharing. Great websites! Packers And Movers Delhi


  57. تعد الحشرات أصغر الكائنات الحية على سطح الأرض، وتتعدد أنواعها،وأشكالها منها ما هو سام،ومنا ما هو مألوف،كذلك توجد حشرات ذات فائدة وضرر في نفس الوقت؛حيث يبلغ عدد فصائل الحشرات نحو ثلاثين مليون فصيلة،ولا شك أن مكافحة الحشرات تحتاج إلى دراية بكل أنواع الحشرات،وذلك للتعرف على درجة خطورتها على الإنسان والأهم من ذلك طرق مكافحتها.

    شركة مكافحة حشرات بالمدينة المنورة

    الحمام هو النوع الأكثر شيوعًا من فئة طيور الآفات، وهو يسبب مجموعة متنوعة من المشاكل في جميع أنواع المباني، في المناطق الحضرية ، من المطارات إلى منشآت التصنيع ومحطات توليد الطاقة وأسطح المتاجر والمكاتب والمنازل
    كما ان الحمام يتكاثر وجوده في فصل الشتاء و في فصل الصيف مما يجعلنا في حاجة إلى مكافحتة لذلك يتم تركيب طارد حمام المدينة مع افضل شركات تنظيف مخلفات الحمام والطيور وتركيب أفضل أنواع شبك طوارد الحمام

    شركة مكافحة الحمام بالمدينة المنورة

    نظافة المنزل تعتبر نظافة المنزل عاملاً أساسياً للصحة الجسدية والعقلية لأفرادها ، ولأن النظافة هي أساس الوقاية من الأمراض الناتجة عن تراكم الأوساخ والبكتيريا وتعكس صورة ونمط حياة صاحب المنزل ، تحتاج كل أسرة إلى إنشاء نظام للحفاظ على جميع تفاصيل المنزل والبقاء على اتصال مع جميع أفراد الأسرة

    شركة تنظيف شقق بالمدينة المنورة