Wednesday, October 20, 2010

Should Games Sell For Donations? Or, Is Setting a Fixed Price For Losers?

So here is a question for Indie developers. Suppose you didn't have to charge a fixed price for your game? Suppose instead you could just have it sell for a donation. Customers give any amount of money, and they get the game. Should you do it?

Of course, any credit card transaction involves a fixed fee, so we'd allow you to set a minimum price, say a dollar, so that you aren't losing money giving people your game. Some people will complain that it's not a donation if you set a minimum price. But only a true jerk would expect you to lose money for the privilege of bringing them entertainment, so these people can be safely ignored.

This question has been asked a lot since the success of the Humble Indie Bundle. I have been repeatedly asked what I thought of that, so that's a good place to start.

What Was the Humble Indie Bundle?

Basically, it was a bundle of five successful and high quality Indie games. They were not new, but they weren't so old either. They were sold for a donation. You could have all five, with DRM, for Windows, Mac, and Linux, for whatever you wanted to pay. And, even better, you could designate a percentage of your donation (from 0% to All) to go to charity!

It succeeded beyond all reasonable expectations. It got huge amounts of attention, everyone involved made buckets of money, and a lot of statements were made about what the Humble Indie Bundle meant for the future of games distribution. In particular, since they all made so much money just asking for donations, shouldn't every developer consider this?

It was a brilliant idea. It got several deserving developers a lot of money, it got deserving charities a lot of money, it got a lot of people some really good games, and it was just generally fantastic overall. If I was asked to include one of my games for a future Bundle, I would jump at the chance.

But Let's Not Overstate the Case

We should probably not leap to extreme conclusions too quickly. Because of the novelty and general virtue of the offer, it got a HUGE amount of publicity. And then it made a ton of money, which got more publicity, and they extended the sale, which got more publicity, and so on.

Look. If you gave me extensive free coverage on Slashdot, Kotaku, The Escapist, and every other online news outlet, I could make a fortune selling quarters for a dollar each. (Hey, it works in real life.) This is something people forget when they look at sales on, say, Steam making a lot of money and then say, "OK. All games should be cheap, always." Sales do so well because they get a ton of attention. If it becomes a regular, everyday thing, it won't get the attention. Will accepting donations generate acceptable income if many developers do it? I don't know, but it won't get the same glowing success it got when it was new.

But the fact remains. The Humble Indie Bundle was a brilliant idea that got a ton of well-earned success. They made a ton of money asking for donations for their games.

Should you?

When It Might Work

Not long ago, I wrote about how there is a spectrum in how games should be priced. On one end are the casual, disposable, impulse-buy games. These should be very cheap, painfully cheap. At the other end are are hardcore, involved, long playing-time, niche games for a small audience. These need to earn as much money from each member of their small player pools as possible to avoid developer bankruptcy. These games need to carefully choose an actual price that brings in adequate earnings.

So suppose you're writing a cheap, impulse buy, casual game and you had the chance to make it donation-ware. Should you? Quite probably! You need to charge a small amount anyway to work as an impulse buy. And, if you ask for donations, some people will give you more money. Maybe they love Indie developers, or they feel the higher price is fair, or they just hate having money. Either way, it's freely given, so grab it while you can!

I have several games that I bought on XBox Live Indie Games that I got for a dollar each. I like them a lot, and they made good money for their makers. But if instead of charging a fixed dollar they asked for a minimum dollar donation? I would bet just about anything these games would be making a LOT more money. I don't think Microsoft is going to add a Donate button to the Indie Games channel soon, but they should. It's a great option for developers, and it would make more money for Microsoft too.

When It Probably Won't Work

When you have a niche product with a small customer base.

The average donation for the Humble Indie Bundle was $9.18, and you got SIX games out of that. I am planning to charge my small but dedicated fanbase $25 for my next game. If my donation size was similar to what they got, to make the same amount of money, asking for donations would have to increase my sales by 250%. That is a LOT. To get that, I would have to get a huge amount of publicity and gather a lot of sales from people who would otherwise have pirated it. However, if this became a common business tactic, the publicity wouldn't be there, because donation-ware wouldn't be new and exciting anymore.

And if it didn't improve sales that much? At nine bucks per copy, I would be out of business inside of a year.

But I said earlier that I would jump at being in another Humble Bundle in a second. That is because the Bundle would get that sort of publicity. There's strength in numbers. But a lone small developer? It's a dangerous, dangerous tactic.

Who knows? It might work. Part of me would love to try it. However, Spiderweb Software is how I make my living and buy food for my kids. Someone will experiment more with this in the future, but it can't be me. The personal consequences of failure are too big. So feel free to pillory me in the comments for how much I suck and am a coward, but I'm sure some of you will understand.

It's An Exciting Time

The last few years have made all developers rethink everything they know about development, distribution, and pricing. It's an amazing world, full of exciting new options. Why just considering whether I should ask for donations instead of charge a fixed price totally blows my mind.

And, finally, one more thought about PC/Mac development. Since it is so easy to pirate games on personal computers, people will only buy your game in they are virtuous and don't hate you. Since you are only actually selling products to Good People anyway, going to them with open hands and saying, "Pay me what this is worth to you." might eventually be the only business tactic that makes sense.

70 comments:

  1. I paid more than average for the Humble bundle. I bought them because I wanted more than half of the games in the bundle, but wasn't willing to pay full price for them. (I had played demos and enjoyed them.)

    If there was a bundle full of games I hadn't heard of I would be far less likely to buy them, or to pay very much. So, I would agree that it was a very special case.

    ReplyDelete
  2. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  3. May you live in interesting times, indeed. I'm not a developer, but I have worked in the IT field. I find these posts fascinating. I think that I might find them fascinating even if I were just a Spiderweb fan or gamer in general. Jeff, please keep musing on this topic.

    Apple just announced the app store will be coming early next year for Macs. This will essentially be an "iPad layer" within the OS. I can see some benefit to this concept. It simplifies installation, launching, updating and perhaps more. I do NOT think that the Mac version will have the same downward pressure on prices that the iDevice version does. Fears of closing the sandbox completely are a concern. What are your thoughts on this development?

    ReplyDelete
  4. I think you are 100% correct - P.W.Y.C. donationware only works for a very high-visibility, mass-market product and a huge amount of buzz behind it. Due to the success of the indie bundle, copycat schemes are going to dilute the buzz until nobody cares: like a "sale" that never ends. The rest of us indie game developers will most likely be better served by selling premium content at premium prices. Certainly worth an experiment, but be sure to make it a very limited time only. Perhaps you could celebrate a milestone with a one-week-long pay what you want event to attract some new fans. I would love to hear how it goes as I too have been toying with the idea of letting users pay whatever they feel the game is worth.

    ReplyDelete
  5. @Anthony: I seriously doubt they will close anything off completely, not as long as they ever want Word or Photoshop on the Mac. I think it's a great opportunity, and I plan to have games both for sale normally AND over their service.

    - Jeff Vogel

    ReplyDelete
  6. I may be the only person in the world in favor of in-game advertising. There should be a lot more of it. The catch is, it should be for the game itself.

    Can't wait for the first time a game I downloaded for free asks me, when I go to quit, "I notice you played me for several hours. Did you have fun? If so, consider clicking here to donate for further development?" Why should I pay what I want for an unknown quantity? How can I pay what I think it's worth without knowing what I think it's worth?

    Minecraft could be making time and a half if the people who play it a huge amount occasionally remembered "Oh yeah, I paid just 10 euros for this."

    ReplyDelete
  7. I agree that this is a fascinating topic. I personally tend to default to $20 for a donation, and would likely maintain that for PWYC games, possibly going higher if I had enjoyed previous games by the developer or something.

    Unfortunately, I am a rare case both in that I have money to do that with and that good games are worth a lot to me, they become more than "just games".

    Love your musings as always!

    ReplyDelete
  8. I think if any Steam type business plan would work for you it would be the type that some companies like Lucasarts seem to do. Take a bunch of games that have been out for a long time and are either out of print or hardly take anything in, package them up, and maybe throw in a more recent game that is underperforming, then give them a big discount off of their retail prices as a bundle. Then discount that bundle further as a short term promotion. Basically, a way of getting people who didn't get some of the games the first time around to consider buying many older games at the price of 1 or 2 new ones.

    Why it might work? You have many older games that most of your regular buyers own already, but also a lot of people who played the demos but never bought the game, you might convert some of them to paying customers. You might get others to buy as a chance to get games from a highly respected indie developer on the cheap. Plus some will be intrigued by your latest stuff and might pay full price for them.

    Why it might not work? Well, you don't have the easy advertising outlet that Steam does, so you might spend more getting enough publicity out there to make these potential customers even aware of this great bargain, then you'd make on sales of your niche product.

    Of course, there is also the sales model of making blog posts on controversial subjects in order to get them linked on Slashdot, and having some of them check out your actual games. ;->

    ReplyDelete
  9. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  10. How do you feel Minecraft fits into this theory?

    ReplyDelete
  11. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  12. You're blog is thought-provoking as always. I personally fear self-starting making my own games like I fear skydiving. I'm curious on your thoughts on the kickstart strategy.

    If you're unfamiliar, here's how it works. You throw up your idea: a video game, movie, book you'll write, public art, whatever. You throw a price-tag on it, a total donation goal. Along with that you post prizes for donation tiers. X gets you a game copy, 5 * X gets you a signed game...

    If the goal is met within time-line the money is transferred to your account (preunambly with overhead for transaction). If not, the money is refunded to prospective "donors".

    Your thoughts?

    For the record, I'm not really a fan of playing RPG's these days, but I enjoy your blog.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Jeff,

    Does the math change for you if you were given a chance to make a much older game donationware?

    Say you had an opportunity to get in on a donationware bundle, but not The Bundle that got all the hype. But instead of wanting Avadon, they'd want, say, Avernum 2. You'd be in with five other indie games of equivalent age and stature, and you'd get a one-sixth share of the profits, subtracting web hosting fees, credit card fees, etc?

    The more I think about it, donationware is a lousy way to sell new games. But it might just be a great way to wring a few more bucks from old ones.

    ReplyDelete
  14. These days budget gaming is easy. Also major titles end up on sale quickly. Just after reading this post, I picked Mass Effect 2 with just 9.95(€). In my case, it's hard for an indie developer to compete with a price and make a living.

    Thus, a promise to you Jeff. If I decide to buy one of your games (demo installed), it doesn't have to be ridiculously cheap. For me, your blog actually is the best kind of marketing.

    ReplyDelete
  15. One of the hardest things to determine is what price you should charge without knowing what the demand curve looks like (e.g if I double my price what percentage of customers will I lose and will that be made up with the increased revenue per copy sold?). Donationware seems like one possible way to get that information and that could be used to inform setting future price points.

    ReplyDelete
  16. The math is a little off, you said $9.18 average for 6 games, but you didn't take that 6 games into consideration. So you would have needed to sell more like 250% X 6 = 1500% as many copies. People arent going to pay as much average for a single game.

    ReplyDelete
  17. "You could have all five, with DRM, for Windows, Mac, and Linux, for whatever you wanted to pay."

    With DRM? I bought mine at least DRM-free. :)

    ReplyDelete
  18. If you support Mac, it shouldn't be so hard to support Linux: there may not be a huge Linux market, but they make a lot of noise and, if asked to donate, tend to pay the most money. For the Humble indie bundle more money was made from Linux than from Mac, despite there being less people buying the game for Linux.

    It's interesting that you're able to feed a family with indie-games development. I'd assumed that one could just barely afford pizza every night, and had to get one's parents to bail one out. This is why I'm at university working on my plan B, not making indie games full time: if anyone's a coward it's me.

    ReplyDelete
  19. " Since it is so easy to pirate games on personal computers, people will only buy your game in they are virtuous and don't hate you. Since you are only actually selling products to Good People anyway, going to them with open hands and saying, "Pay me what this is worth to you." might eventually be the only business tactic that makes sense. "

    To me this is key. I'm not about to pontificate my grand theory about what the answer to your question is, but I think this is important to think about. (Granted, I wouldn't call pirates "Bad People" - but I'm not also relying on selling games to put food on my table like you are...actually, maybe I would call them Bad People if they're pirating from indie developers...anyway...) But this is so important, this insight here. Don't really have any more thoughts now, but thanks for writing up this really interesting post.

    ReplyDelete
  20. > "I may be the only person in the world in favor of in-game advertising. There should be a lot more of it. The catch is, it should be for the game itself."

    Seems like it would take a lot of advertising to make-up for a $10 or $50 sales-price of a game. I suppose you might get more players, though. Anyway, Microsoft is selling off their "Massive" division which specialized in in-game advertising. They discovered that in-game advertising wasn't nearly as profitable as they were hoping. Players tended to tune it out. According to news reports, Microsoft was trying to sell-off the division for around a million dollars. They bought it in 2006 for between $200 million and $400 million.

    http://www.atomicboysoftware.com

    ReplyDelete
  21. > "Pay me what this is worth to you." might
    > eventually be the only business tactic that
    > makes sense.

    I agree. Well, almost. Actually, I'd like to pay for a game _after_ I played it (perhaps not finished 100%, but extensively) - that's what would make most sense to me.

    But how to do that in real life? Perhaps ask for the minimum payment (~1$) up front and for the donation later. Not sure if this would work, but if there is a time to try something like this, it's probably now.

    ReplyDelete
  22. I would say honestly that the best place a game could be offered at a discount price would be on Steam. I don't think 'donationware' is a business model that is sustainable due to jerks out there.

    I for one spent 20 bucks on the game maker's webpage for a couple of the games that were included in the bundle. I had purchased two packs of games that included two games. One for myself and one for my sister. If it wasn't for a good advertisement article on a site I read daily I would never have bought it.

    Although I check steam daily or at least every weekend to find out if they are running a sale. Most times it isn't worth looking until a holiday but at those times you can buy a game for 'your price.' The heavy discounts for games on steam holidays is excellent and I wish every developer realized this.

    I can speak for my own habits. If a game is something I'm really excited about I will pre-order it. If I'm mediocre about it then I will read reviews about it after release and possibly follow it for a while before purchasing. Lastly I will skip a game and keep the thought in the back of my mind. Those are the games that I pickup on steam for minimal cost. Ask the developers if some profit is better than none and I'm sure you will have your answer. At least with steam they can control the variables somewhat.

    ReplyDelete
  23. There's a similar problem over in the music industry, where the success of a couple of big name acts offering "pay what you want" deals has led a lot of people - usually self-justifying copyright infringers - to claim that is the 'right' way to distribute music, and that artists still make a living off it. But it only works for people at the extremes of the spectrum - those already popular enough to have enough people pay attention to the offer, and those who weren't going to earn more than a pittance through the traditional channels. The vast majority of artists - and indeed, game developers - will fall in the middle, where there is an audience for the product, many of whom will prefer to take it for free, and too few to create a viral effect and bring in masses of donations. You can end up losing more from letting your traditional customers pay less than you'll gain from getting a few new customers donating a few cents.

    ReplyDelete
  24. If we build into our analysis the assumption that all customers are "good people" and will pay as much as the game is worth to them rather than as little as they can get away with, we can see by applying some basic principles of microeconomics that the donationware model becomes crushingly superior to the fixed price model.

    Anyone who would have paid the fixed price would have done so only because he felt the game was worth at least as much to him as the fixed price. Thus, under the donationware model, he will donate at least the fixed price and in some cases more. Any person who would have paid $25 for your game will, if he's a "good person," be willing to donate $25, and there are some people who would have paid $30, $35, or more who would have gotten away with paying $25 under the fixed price model but who under the donationware model will loosen their pursestrings.

    Furthermore, under the fixed price model, anyone who felt the game to be worth only $24 would not have bought it, and would thereby have been denied the pleasure of playing it while also denying the game creator $24 of revenue. Under the donationware model, the game creator captures revenue from all of the people who value the game less than the fixed price but more than zero. This is likely to be a substantial amount of revenue, and an amount that the game developer would otherwise have had no opportunity to garner.

    In essence, under the "good people" assumption, the donationware model in effect allows the game developer to practice perfect, comprehensive price discrimination across his entire demand schedule.

    Of course, the "good people" assumption is dubious, to say the least.

    ReplyDelete
  25. You are absolutely right to carry on charging a reasonable price for your games. There's no way you can risk your families subsistence on donations for this kind of old school RPGs.

    But you know that. I just wanted to contradict your "pillory me in the comments for how much I suck and am a coward" and show that yes at least one person understands.

    I even bought Geneforge 3, but never finished it. Enjoyed my time with it though, even though it left me with no appetite for more Geneforge, and I am looking forward to seeing your next title.

    ReplyDelete
  26. Donationware is one idea... another is this concept of "FairWare" envisioned by Hardcoded:
    http://www.hardcoded.net/articles/free-as-in-speech-fair-as-in-trade.htm

    Essentially, the software is "Free" as in it doesn't need a license, but ever time you launch it, a window pops up letting you know how many hors of development time remain unpaid. When you donate, you get a license that removes that removes that pop-up.

    Conceived as an alternative to Open-source, but laos viable as an alternative to Donationware - as you put it, developers need to make living, also.

    ReplyDelete
  27. With games such as yours, I think in the long run, donations would be the better strategy.

    Your user base would expand, and it would highly increase the chance of future purchases with other games/bundles.

    ReplyDelete
  28. I donated $80 for the bundle with 50% earmarked for the charities. I felt it was a great cause, a good way to show support for developers who produce games for Linux (my preferred operating system), a novel idea, and a way to try out a few titles I had heard about, but had not yet been sufficiently compelled to invest time & money into them.

    I had already purchased full-cost licenses for Lugaru & Aquaria previously, and knowing their quality and value did much to increase my perception of the other titles.

    One very interesting statistic was the average donation per platform. Windows was the lowest & Linux the highest. Frankly it doesn't surprise me at all because overpriced software (Windows, Office, Adobe products, etc.), a sheer abundance of big-title games, and the warez culture causes the Windows user-base to devalue software in general. I experienced this myself as a former Windows user and participant in the upgrade treadmill & warez scene until I grew tired of it all and switched completely to Linux.

    Any future Humble Bundle promotions are sure to receive my attention and participation.

    ReplyDelete
  29. Nel Moncler fan, sono fermamente vi Moncler Giacche proponiamo. Perché è il materiale migliore, Moncler abbigliamentoè al 100% della salute dei bambini. Se vuoi essere comodo da indossare, moderno, Moncler presaè la scelta migliore è un modo semplice è l'apertura selettore speciale Moncler cappotti per ogni occasione.

    ReplyDelete
  30. Silver pandora jewelry store comprises replacement atomic number 79 equally the metal by choice in that pandora jewelry website flavors manners. .925 alright superlative Ag Jewelry checks 92.5% complete silver pandora jewelry online and comprises assorted with extra debases to beef up them and abbreviate maculating pandora style jewelry coming through a hard-nosed alloy as pandora bracelet beads . The rise in metal prices, especially gold, have begun to alter pandora leather bracelet dashes. Designers are applying sterling pandora style bracelet a lot of today because of its gold pandora bracelet appeal and affordability. Designers care Jacques Louis pandora charm necklace David Yurman and those from pandora’s cause changed their focus and are making A-list assembles by .925 Fine Sterling pandora necklace charms Although Silver is affordable its price has quietly risen 300% inch the last 5 years and is astir across 50% pandora silver beads these class entirely. Many investment advisers* recommend a portion of your wealth be inward Ag and amber. Trend setters who comprised the first to begin wearing pandora necklace leather metal to match tatto last word and additional electric current styles as well do good along accepting pandora bracelet charms worth more than they paid for it.

    ReplyDelete
  31. nike running shoes
    The Power Balance bracelet is made of pure surgical grade silicone that is extremely durable. Its stretch feature optimizes users' comfort level. It comes equipped with two, visible power balance holograms and this sporty and stylish bracelet goes with everything.

    Specification:

    Silicone Power Balance Wristband Bracelet
    The band made of 100% silicone rubber
    With 2 visible hologram disks for balance power,waterproof.


    Except for this product,customers are eager to shop for:
    Silly Bands
    Reebok Easytone

    ReplyDelete
  32. I think someone has already mentioned it, but you wrote "with DRM" when it's actually WITHOUT DRM. Cheers!

    ReplyDelete
  33. scored in Ecco Casual Shoes.the playoffs he averaged 23.1 winter boots,points and 12.6 rebounds, but the league.

    ReplyDelete
  34. As the shape ups time draws nigh when the whole business must be achieved, the clock must be consulted, and to each dish due tune allowed for the fire to complete what has been thus prepared. Now the cook must be collected as well as busy, that there may be no oversight of any kind (see art. ■' Cooking"). The vegetables and sauces must, in their preparation, keep pace with the dishes which they are to accompany, so that the order of the dinner may be carefully observed.1561. The dinner hour arrived, the cook commences serving such things as may, without injury, bo covered over, and plare.l for a short time on the hot hearth, or in the hot closet (see " Kitchen Apparatus"). Dut choice or important skechers shape ups dishes she refrains from serving until the order for dinner has been given from the drawing-room. Then all hands are at work. shape ups skechers The cook takes immediate charge of fish, soup, and poultry. The kitchen-maid (in some houses assisted by the under housemaid) dishes vegetables, and pours gravies and «auces iuto tureens. The scullion waits the bidding of the cook. All are thus busy, and yet without con fusion.1502. skechers shoes The serving table (in some kitchens heated with steam) is covered with a clian ninth, and the first coarse is set upon it, and carried thence by the footmen, in regular order, to the butler in the dining-room. The cook's constant aim should be shape ups shoes to serve her dinner neatly, and* above even-thing, to scud it up hot. it '-old. her painstaking in all other respects will avail little. Also, of the second course she Bhould time judi "iotisly the dishing; if deferred too long, an awkward shape ups boots lapse in the dining-room will occur; if loo soon, some tt the light and fancy dishes, such as omelettes aud fundus, may be injured. •1563.

    ReplyDelete
  35. Perhaps you could celebrate a milestone with a one-week-long pay what you want event to attract some new fans labatterie I would love to hear how it goes as I too have been toying with the idea of letting users pay whatever they feel the game is worth.

    ReplyDelete
  36. In this distress he was received into the house of Mr. Waldron, where he lay concealed for some time. When the place of his retreat was at length discovered, he took refuge in Flanders, whore he died after a mbt trainers few months' residence, in the summer of 1791.Under the hospitable roof of this worthy and amiable man, Whalley resumed the care of Jonson ; but want of books, and, perhaps, of sufficient composure of mind, rendered his attcmpte ineffectual, and the manuscript was finally abandoned to his friend, who, in the year 1792, coach outlet store online commenced the publication of it in numbers. The success apparently fell short of the expectations of the editor, as the work was not continued beyond the second number.Mr. Waldron neither possessed, nor pretended to be possessed of, scholastic learning; but he was laborious, accurate, conversant with the stage, and imbued with a rational love of the ancient drama, which he had studied coach bags outlet with success. He appears to have collated Whalley's copy with the early editions ; and, on attentively retracing his steps, previously to the arrangement of the text for the present publication, I found much to approve in the caution andI Whalley'« text was that of the booksellers' edition, five finger shoes in Svo. This had been in Theobald's band«, and an incidental remark by him, of no moment whatever, here and there appeared in Ule margin.judgment with which he had uniformly proceeded. His friendship for Whalley, however, has led him to form far too high an estimate of that gentleman's qualifications ; and beyond the revision which I have just mentioned, he seems to have contemplated no alteration of the papers left in his hands.Many years had elapsed since the failure, last mentioned, when the republication coach outlet coupon of Joneon w»s proposed to me by Mr. George Nicol, to whom Whalley'e corrected copy had been consigned by Mr. Waldron. I was well aware of the labor and difficulty of the task ; but my objections were overcome by the encouragement of my friend, and I undertook the edition, confident that I was not about to coach purses outlet encumber the public with a superfluous work, for Jonson had now been long out of the bookseller's hands. One motive there yet was, which had some influence on my determination — a desire, though late, to render justice to the moral character of the author, and rescue him from the calumnies of his inveterate persecutors. My mind had been prejudiced at an early period by the commentators on our old dramas, and I verily believed, as they repeatedly assured me, that " tho great mbt shoes clearance object of Jonson's life was the persecution of Shakspeare ; " nor was it until I became acquainted with the dates of his respective performances that I ventured to question the accuracy of the critics, or to entertain a suspicion that they were actuated by unworthy motives, and could only be relieved 5 finger shoes from the charge of wanton malevolence by the plea of incorrigible folly.Previously to the arrangement of the text, it became necessary to collate the old editions. In the execution of this part of the work, the mode adopted in the revision of Maesinger was carefully followed.

    ReplyDelete
  37. Application of Sewage North Face Womens Jackets for Purposes of Irrigation In our Report on the Thames,(pages 12 to 15,) we have described at some length the modes of sewage irrigation as practised at Croydon, Norwood, Worthing, G star raw Carlisle, and Edinburgh; we have little to add to this account other than that experience confirms the practice of this mode of disposing of sewage. In the course of our inquiry we have received evidence as to its advantage. At this time, April 18th, there are crops of Italian rye-grass at Worthing grown under sewage irrigation, which are being cut at the rate of from five to eight tons to the acre, whilst adjoining pasture-lands are almost bare. A small dairy has been established, the cows being stall-fed on the cut grass; the milk produced, from its richness and superior quality, G star jeans commanding a preference in the town. A sewage farm requires special and peculiar management; the operations should be specially adapted to this mode of culture, and then it will be found that any land may be improved. The operations do not turn clay lands into swamps, although 60 inches in depth of sewage are added by irrigation to the rainfall. The dressings with sewage must be even and at regulated intervals. In all cases sewage should be used fresh, that is before putrescence has set in, so as to Skechers Coupons prevent any effluvium arising from the irrigated land. Where this is the case there cannot be any just grounds for complaint. Where clay lands are irrigated, and the contour of the land will admit of the operation, a second and even a third use of the water may be made with advantage.Sewage irrigation works cannot be too simple in their character; the application should be by surface carriers, not by underground piping and hose and jet. Land which has been worked in ridge and furrow will require levelling, that is the soil should be stripped or the ground be broken up so as to bring the surface even. Main carriers should be laid in nearly level lines so as to Shape Ups Reviews command the area below, and secondary carriers at from half a chain to one chain apart should contour the entire surface. The main carriers may be covered in, having valves or sluice-boards of an inexpensive and simple kind to retain and let out sewage as required. The main carriers will be of brick or of earthenware pipes in size proportioned to the volume of sewage to be distributed. Conduits below 18 inches in North Face Outlet Sale diameter may be made most cheaply of earthenware pipes : brickwork may be cheaper for conduits of larger cross-sections. Small carriers may be formed with common agricultural tiles, but jointed and laid only three parts in the soil, so that one tile or more than one tile can be removed temporarily at any point to allow of surface overflowing at such points when the tiles are removed for this purpose.

    ReplyDelete
  38. Shoe hygiene is also important. Use anti-bacterial and anti-odor powders. Shoe deodorants are available in most stores, as well. If applied overnight, these products will take away the unpleasant shoe smell and will kill the bacteria responsible for it.
    Christian louboutin studded pumps

    Christian louboutin Bianca pumps

    Christian louboutin Rolando pumps

    Christian louboutin greissimo pumps

    Christian louboutin greissimo wedges

    Christian louboutin 140 heels

    Christian louboutin platform pumps

    ReplyDelete
  39. It’s almost Summer and you surely wouldn’t want to display an inappropriate fashion. Season your Bohemian statement with this humble Fendi footwear and you’ll instantly feel comfortable and chic. Shop for Christian Louboutin Pumps may look very simple yet its simplicity can make your overall style standout.
    Given its name, the sandal is designed and created in a strappy approach made of fine Sand / Brown / Honey Brown leather strips that were put together to form a stylish upper. It’s got a rounded open toe to keep a breathable fit. Other notable details include the cutout logo medallion at vamp, a rear zip closure at heel that sits on ¾” sturdy heel. The entire sandal surely fits the Summer season with its overall approach.
    Christian Louboutin Lace Pumps
    Christian Louboutin Lace Pumps
    Christian Louboutin Lady Peep Spikes 150mm
    Christian Louboutin Jenny Knotted Platform Pump

    ReplyDelete
  40. Men and women strategy a different leisure life, producing dsquared2 jeans shoes are considered to be the most used style to follow by modern day people, inside a busy city, two comfortable and stylish Dsquared 2 guys sneakers so that you can in the relaxed and content planet, it releases the machine is installed away from informal style, distinct feeling enables you to be free, all-natural, self. The effect of financial crisis, basic and practical style, and new recommendations for choosing a gift. Dsquared two females sneakers that has a comfortable design notion head into the peoples vision, after that, the pace of the world slowly became relaxed.
    Dsquared2

    Dsquared2 Clothing

    Dsquared2 men clothing


    Dsquared2 on sale

    Dsquared2 online shop

    Dsquared2 men sneaker

    dsquared2 shoes




    dsquared

    d squared

    dsquared uk

    dsquared shoes

    dsquared online

    dsquared jeans

    dsquared sale

    ReplyDelete
  41. More and much more ladies are loco about Christian Louboutin Discount shoes. They are alluring and chic! in several different style gatherings these shoes take place to be noticed. Louboutin Outlet is acknowledged getting a licensed louboutin outlet store! We provide Christian Louboutin 2011, istian Louboutin Heels, Christian Louboutin Sandalswith exceptional excellent shoes and cost-free shipping! The alluring Christian Louboutin Peep Toe can very easily grasp men's eye balls if you pass by. A pair of Christian Louboutin Pumps will undoubtedly embodies undisputed wealth, knowledge, especially the women's charm! need to buy Christian Louboutin Discount? come going to christian Louboutin outlet on the net store!

    ReplyDelete
  42. Christian louboutin shoes disconut are so captivating using the distinctive style and design and stylish appearance.Louboutin Heels is on sale now, why not purchase a pair of Louboutin heels for yourself? They will assist you be additional attractive and comfortable. Louboutin mall are worthy of treasuring.

    ReplyDelete
  43. CHI Hair Straightener online hot sale here.Welcome to have a look at our website,here we supply kinds of chi flat iron ceramic for your choice,change your hairstyle with our Babyliss Hair Straightener,every beauty will comes to you.What's more,we have Chi Hair Straightener on sale as well.moncler sale,moncler clothes.MBT shoes clearance
    http://www.best-hair-straightener.org/
    http://www.monclersaleblog.net
    http://www.christianlouboutinsclearancesale.net/
    http://www.christianlouboutindiscountshoes.net/
    http://www.cheapnikeairmaxshoesoutlet.com/

    ReplyDelete
  44. Thank you for another essential article. Where else could anyone get that kind of information in such a complete way of writing? I have a presentation incoming week, and I am on the lookout for such information.
    Hermes replica
    hermes birkin replica
    Hermes Handbags

    ReplyDelete
  45. A lady's imagination is very rapid; it kithg86 jumps from admiration to love,
    from love to matrimony in a moment.
    Wholesale Cheap Hats

    Wholesale New Era Hats

    Cheap New Era Hats

    New Era Fitted Hats

    Cheap Wholesale New Era Hats

    ReplyDelete
  46. You make some interesting points. It’s interesting how you can work within the system to make a bigger profit without additional work. I think that Gold is a great investment for a similar reason. While the dollar keeps decreasing in value, the value of gold and other precious metals have steadily increased over time. I bought gold from APMEX and found them to be safe, reliable, and honest. They have fair prices and no hidden fees.

    ReplyDelete
  47. Toko Alat Bantu Sex Meyediakan berbagai macam alat sex, yang dapat di manfaatkan untuk pria dan wanita dalam mencari kepuasan biologis.
    Alat Bantu Sex Wanita.
    Alat Bantu Sex pria.

    ReplyDelete